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University of Cambridge
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE
Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study

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Principal Investigator:


Per-Olof Wikström

Per-Olof Wikström (PhD, Docent) is Professor of Ecological and Developmental Criminology at the Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge, and Professorial Fellow of Girton College. He is the Director of the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Study (PADS+), a major ESRC funded research project which aims to advance knowledge about crime causation and prevention. He is the former Director of SCoPIC, an ESRC funded international network (2003-2007) for the study of the social contexts of pathways in crime. Professor Wikström is an Associate Editor of Criminology.

In 1994, he received the American Society of Criminology Sellin-Glueck Award for outstanding contributions to international criminology. In 2002, he was elected a Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford, and in 2010, he was awarded a fellowship by the American Society of Criminology.

Professor Wikström's main research interests are the causes of crime, urban crime, adolescent offending, criminal careers, and cross-national comparative research.


Research Associate:


Kyle Treiber


Kyle TreiberKyle is a PADS+ Research Associate who works particularly with the neurocognitive andbiopsychological dimensions of the study. She has been responsible for acquiring and developing the many psychometric measures used by PADS+ and completed her dissertation, Executive Capabilities and Crime, using PADS+ data on young people’s executive and emotive control.

Dr Treiber graduated from the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics in 1997 and earned her BS in Psychology and a minor in Journalism and Mass Communications from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 2001. She moved to Cambridge in 2002 to undertake her MPhil in Criminology, where she finished top of her class and was awarded the Lopez-Rey Graduate Prize for her dissertation, Sociobiology and Crime. She went on to complete her PhD, Executive Capabilities and Crime, using PADS+ data in 2008, for which she was awarded the 2008 Nigel Walker Prize.

Her research interests include evolutionary psychology and behaviourism, the biology of morality and self-control, and the interaction between individuals and environments.


PADS+ Research Team:


Beth Hardie
(Research Manager)

Beth HardieBeth completed her undergraduate degree in Social and Political Sciences at Cambridge University in 2004, specialising in Developmental Psychology and Criminology.

Beth has since been working under Professor Wikström. She worked for one year to complete the stand-alone Peterborough Community Survey (PCS), after which she joined the other researchers on the PADS+ fieldwork team. In 2006, Beth became the Research Manager of PADS+ and has enjoyed the varied challenges involved with the running of the study, from interviewing the PADS+ young people over the years to devising and practising meticulous methodology, data management and best practice to ensure the quality of the PADS+ data. She is also responsible for the training of collaborative study staff across the European study sites.

Beth’s contribution to PADS+ publications and conference papers focuses on the presentation and analysis of spatial data from external sources and the PADS+ Peterborough Community Survey and Space-Time Budget.

Beth is also currently working on her PhD.


Jennifer Barton-Crosby

Jenni Barton-CrosbyJennifer has a BSc (Hons) degree in Psychology from the University of Surrey, which included a professional placement year with a focus on Forensic Psychology. During her fourth year, Jennifer specialised in Health and Clinical Psychology, Neuropsychology, Developmental Psychology and Psychometrics. Following her undergraduate degree, Jennifer went on to complete an MSc in Forensic Psychology (University of Surrey) and carried out her dissertation research on the perpetrators of gun violence in the UK, with an emphasis on exploring the offence supportive beliefs of such individuals.

Jennifer has previous experience of working with female and male offenders in a custodial setting; prior to joining the PADS+ team in 2009, she worked for the National Probation Service, working specifically with female offenders. Her research interests include the offence supportive beliefs of the perpetrators of violent crime, and how such beliefs develop and manifest in the individual.


Lauren Bates

Lauren BatesLauren has a BSc (Hons) in Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience from the University of Nottingham. During her final year, Lauren studied Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Psychology, Mechanisms of Learning and Psychopathology, Advanced Visual Perception, and Neuropsychology. Her dissertation project was in cognitive neuroscience and investigated memory impairment during aging.

After her undergraduate degree, Lauren went on to complete an MSc in Neuroscience at the Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London. Lauren specialised in Neurodegeneration and completed a lab project focusing on the role of cell signalling protein GSK-3 in Alzheimer’s disease.

Lauren joined the PADS+ team in 2011 and is interested in the relationship between neuroanatomical development during adolescence and cognitive aspects of criminal behavior.


Beverley Garrigan

Beverley GarriganBeverley has a BSc (Hons) in Psychology from the University of Manchester. Her final year included modules on eyewitness testimony. Beverley has an MSc degree in Forensic Psychology from the University of York. Her Masters dissertation focused on the effects of the presentation format of information on juror recall and decision making.

Beverley has experience of mentoring defendants on a bail support scheme with SOVA, in Sheffield and York. She also has experience of assisting with research into prison visits at YOI & HMP Doncaster.

Beverley has varied research interests including investigative psychology, eyewitness testimony, and interventions for young offenders.


Harriet Ludford

Harriet LudfordHarriet has a BSc (Hons) degree in Psychology from the University of Bath, which involved a professional placement year working in the Crime and Drugs Research Unit at the Home Office. 

Following her undergraduate degree, Harriet went on to work as a Research Assistant at the National Centre for Social Research, in the Crime and Justice team.  Her research mainly focused on the evaluation of government policies, and involved working with probation staff, prison staff, and male offenders.  

Her research interests include adolescent offending, the influence of personal factors on criminal involvement, and preventative interventions.

Harriet joined the PADS+ team in February 2011, and her main task is to carry out the 2011 Peterborough Community Survey. 


Loveday Newman

Loveday NewmanLoveday completed her undergraduate degree in Psychology at Cardiff University in July 2010, which included a year working in the Psychology Department at the University of Toulouse as part of an ERASMUS programme.   She also worked as a research assistant in developmental psychology during her final year at Cardiff.

Her interests include social and cognitive development, mental health and how environmental and individual factors interact to produce outcomes.

Loveday began work as a research assistant for the PADS+ project in January 2011. 



PhD Dissertations:

Completed PhDs

Dirk-Hinrich Haar

Formalised modelling of action theory in the explanation of crime for prediction, deduction and intervention

Dirk-Hinrich HaarFor his dissertation, Dirk-Hinrich Haar developed a formalised model of action which emphasises the role of experiential memory and habituation in behaviour. He tested this model experimentally with regards to routine offending and routine compliance. He also investigated social implications, in particular for deterrence.

Prior to his PhD research, Dirk-Hinrich Haar studied Political Science and Public Policy in Germany and France and completed the MPhil in Criminology at Cambridge in 2006. His studies have been supported by the Friedrich Ebert Foundation (Germany) and the Gates Cambridge Trust.

Upon completing his PhD, Dirk-Hinrich Haar trained with Germany's Federal Police to join the force at Superintendent rank.


Alpa Parmar

Crime and ‘the Asian Community’: Disentangling Perceptions and Reality

Alpa ParmarDr Parmar’s dissertation presented an in-depth community case study focussing on the experiences of British-Pakistani youths in the UK and their immediate community context. Dr Parmar is now teaching at King’s College London School of Law, where she is a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow. Her current research focuses on understanding ethnic minority youths’ perceptions of and experiences with the police in the UK following the implementation of anti-terror legislation.

Alpa graduated from Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge, in 2000 with a degree in Social and Political Sciences. She then completed the MPhil in Criminology at Cambridge and worked as a Senior Research Fellow on a Home Office funded evaluation of domestic violence initiatives in the UK before beginning her doctoral research.


Alex Sutherland

Adolescent Substance Use

Alex SutherlandDr. Sutherland used PADS+ data to examine two areas of substance use for his thesis: the relationship between the initiation of adolescent substance use and parental socio-economic status; and assessing the role of self-control and morality in explaining changes in the level of substance use. In addition, he used data from a national study to replicate findings from PADS+ and examine so-called ‘school effects’ on substance use.

At present, he is in the process of writing up his thesis for publication as journal articles and (in collaboration with Jon Jackson at LSE) is working on a paper which examines the relationship between conditions of low social trust and violence across London. In September 2010, he was appointed to a permanent post as Research Methods Teaching Associate for the Joint Schools’ Social Science (JSSS) programme at Cambridge. In that role, he teaches courses in quantitative methods to graduate students from a range of disciplines across the university and coordinates the quantitative methods provision for the JSSS programme.



Kyle Treiber

Kyle TreiberExecutive Capabilities and Crime

Dr Treiber’s dissertation explored the role of executive capabilities (the neurocognitive functions involved in action decision-making) in self-control and the process of action choice. She is now a Research Associate and Assistant Lecturer at the University of Cambridge, where she continues to work with PADS+.




Current PhDs

Sophie Eastwood


Sophie EastwoodSophie’s dissertation will explore temporal changes in the relationship between lifestyle geography and adolescent social behaviour. She will investigate characteristics of the social environment, their influences on adolescent behaviour, and how those influences change during the transition into young adulthood. 

Sophie graduated from King’s College London in 2006 with an LLB in Law. In addition, she also received the Albert Kilrafy Prize for the best undergraduate dissertation in History of English Law. In 2008 she completed an MPhil in Criminology at the University of Cambridge. Her MPhil dissertation explored the ‘real’ cost of imprisonment, involving not only examining the ‘direct’ economic costs associated with imprisonment, but also the ‘indirect’ and  less easily quantifiable social costs of imprisonment to both prisoners and their families.  The holistic ‘real’ cost of imprisonment was calculated using an innovative amalgam of ordinal and cardinal values, sensitive to both temporal and spatial variations. The thesis received a distinction mark.


Beth Hardie

Beth HardieBeth's PhD thesis uses PADS+ data and Geographic Information Systems to investigate the links between supervision, activity fields and crime.

Beth is also the Research Manager of PADS+.






Jane Horgan

Jane HorganJane’s PhD thesis will explore the possible relationships between religion, morality and crime among the PADS+ participants. The thesis will focus on the religious affiliations and activities of the adolescents and their families, and the importance of religion in their lives. It will make denominational comparisons, note any patterns regarding affiliation and involvement, and chart changes over time. The aim of the thesis will be to discern to what degree, and under what conditions, religion influences the development of personal and environmental morality and its subsequent impact on behaviour.

Jane graduated from the University of Cambridge in 2008 with a BA in Theology and Religious Studies (first class), focusing on comparative religion and the psychology and sociology of religion.

In 2009, Jane undertook an MPhil in Criminological Research at the Institute of Criminology. She wrote her MPhil dissertation on ‘Religion, Morality, and Crime’, developing the theoretical basis for a possible relationship between the three variables and using data from the PADS+ study to support her argument. The dissertation received a distinction mark, and Jane is now expanding upon the same topic during the course of her PhD.  


Daniel Marshall


Daniel MarshallDaniel's dissertation will explore implementation issues of criminal justice intervention programmes with young people, and the experiences of those young people. He has also worked on the criminology, law, and sociology courses at Leeds Metropolitan University, University of York, and University of Cambridge.

Daniel graduated from the University of Teesside in 2006 with a BSc in Criminology and Psychology, receiving the Dick Richardson Memorial Award for best student dissertation. Daniel spent the following year studying an MA in Criminological Research at the University of Leeds. His dissertation focused on the changing characteristics of first time entrants to the youth justice system between 2002 / 2003 and 2006 / 2007, working with Leeds Youth Offending Service.

Daniel has also spent over five years working as a police officer with Durham Constabulary, and is co-founding a not-for-profit social enterprise pairing adult coaches with young offenders.



Neema Trivedi

Neema TrivediNeema's PhD will focus upon the role of moral emotions in the decision to engage in the act of crime.

Neema was a Research Assistant with PADS+ from November 2007 to October 2010, and led the research team for sweep 6. She has a BSc in Psychology (City University, London), and an MRes in Research in psychology (Oxford Brookes and University of Oxford).

Her particular areas of interest are the Child and Developmental Psychology, including the causes and influencing factors behind various everyday behaviour as well as delinquent behaviour.

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